post-war women programmers
(these are notes on the images on the page above)
THERE MUST BE MORE TO THIS!!!
image now named
Grace Hopper UNIVAC diversity xxx
SI Neg. 83-14878. Date: na.Grace Murray Hopper at the UNIVAC keyboard, c. 1960. Grace Brewster Murray:
American mathematician and rear admiral in the U.S. Navy who was a pioneer in developing computer technology,
helping to devise UNIVAC I. the first commercial electronic computer, and naval applications for
COBOL (common-business-oriented language). Credit: Unknown (Smithsonian Institution)
The COBOL project brought together a diverse group�men, women, African Americans, and Asian Americans.
At Remington Rand UNIVAC, team members used the room-sized Univac I and Univac II computers.
Grace Hopper, shown at center right in the first photograph, directed the group.
Programs were entered on reels of magnetic tape, using a special form of typewriter called a Unityper.
fruitful google image searches:
grace hopper invention
Turing's assistants on the software writing were women, Cicely Popplewell and Audrey Bates. This
set-up neatly confirmed Manchester stereotypes:
Williams, Kilburn Newman, Turing
Real Manchester Virtual Womanchester
Has much changed? At least women in computing and gender issues are on the agenda.
WREN = WRNS, Women's Royal Naval Service.
ENIGMA = Alan Turing: The Enigma, Andrew Hodges
20TH = A History of Computing in the 20th Century, Metropolis, Howlett, Rota, MIT Press
Cicely Popplewell. age 74, (assuming 25 in 1950; b. 1925)
W/Audrey Bates, Turing's first programmers. Interviewed for job summer 1949.
Cambridge math. grad., experience in punched cards used in housing statistics.
Good quote p402. ENIGMA p401.
Audrey Bates. Age likely mid/late 70's.
W/Popplewell, Turing's first programmers. No other data.
Ada Lovelace. 1840's.
Joan Clarke. Age 84, assuming 25 in 1940.
Hired at Bletchley, 1940. Math. Prof. Likely not programmer, but may have done
proto-programming on Bombes etc. (Women/WREN proto-programmers needs persuing.)
Odette Wylie. ?
A WREN, "Odette" (first name?) married Shaun Wylie (Bletchley). May be HEATH ROBINSON
worker/programmer. Long shot.
I.J. Good, Donald Michie, and "some thirty WRENS".
Operators of HEATH ROBINSON.
Once regularized, some work was arranged into decision trees which were handled
by WRENS, with a Senior WREN as Chief Operator. With refs.
Prof. Kathleen Booth nee Britten. Age 78, assuming 25 in 1946 (see ref).
Andrew D. Booth designed hardware, Kathleen software for a relay/drum
Coded function tables for ENIAC, MANIAC? (LASL)
Klari von Neumann?
Daughter? Wife? Worked on ENIAC function tables.
Lois Cook (Leurgans). Age 76, assuming 25 in 1948 (photo below)
Great photo, 20TH p461.
Metropolis' references to "R. Bivins, L. Cook, M. Jones, D. Bradford, E. Alei, M. Tsingou" as
UN/ATTRIBUTED PHOTOS: (separate section)
COLOSSUS operators, likely WRENs, 20TH p49.
ENIAC operators, 20TH p317.
J.E. Robertson's daughter playing with ILLIAC console, 20TH p353.
Many women in WHIRLWIND photo, 20TH p383-384.
Woman at IBM console, 20TH p398.